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ZEN BUDDHISM 

and Its Relation to Art 






By 

ARTHUR WALEY 



LONDON: 

LUZAG & CO., 46, Great Russell Street, W.G.I. 

1922 



ZEN BUDDHISM 



ZEN BUDDHISM 

and Its Relation to Art 



By 
ARTHUR WALEY 



LONDON 

LUZAG £? CO., 46, Great Russell Street, W.G.I. 

1922 



ZEN BUDDHISM 
AND ITS RELATION TO ART 

Books on the Far East often mention a sect of Buddhism 
called Zen. They say that it was a ' ' school of abstract medi- 
tation ' ' and that it exercised a profomid influence upon art 
and literature ; but they tell us very little about what Zen 
actually was, about its relation to ordinary Buddhism, its 
history, t>r the exact nature of its influence upon the arts. 

The reason of this is that very little of the native literature 
which deals with Zen has yet been translated, perhaps because 
it is written in early Chinese colloquial, a language the study 
of which has been almost wholly neglected by Europeans and 
also (to judge by some of their attempts to translate it) by the 
Japanese themselves. 

The present paper makes no attempt at profundity, but it 
is based on the study of original texts and fuirjifShes, -I hope, 
some information not hitherto accessible. , 



'7" !6efore describing the origins of Zen itself I must give some 
^general account of Buddhism. At the time when it reached 
China-^ there were two kinds of Buddhism, called the Lesser 
Vehicle and the Greater. The former. Primitive Buddhism, 
possessed scriptures Which in part at any rate were genuine ; 
that is to say, they recorded words actually used by Shakya- 
muni. The ordinary adherent of this religion did not hope to 
become a Buddha ; Buddhas indeed were regarded as extremely 
rare. He only aspired to become an Arhat, that is "an ascetic 
ripe for annihilation," one who is about to escape frt)m the 
wheel of reincarnation — whose present incarnation is an ante- 
chamber to Nirvana. To such aspirants the Buddha gives no 
assistance; he is what children in their games call "home," 
and his followers must pant after him as best they can. 

Those who found this religion too comfortless invented 
another, which became known as Mahayana, the Greater 
Vehicle. Putting their doctrines into the mouth of Shakya- 

(1) First century a.d. 
7 



t^i^i 



muni, they fabricated ad hoc sermons of enormous length, 
preached (so they asserted) by the Buddha himself in his 
' ' second period ' ' to those who were ripe to receive the whole 
truth. 

The great feature of this new Buddhism was the interven- 
tion of the merciful HodhisattY as,, illuminati who, though fit 
for Buddhahood, voluntarily renounced it in order to help 
mankind. 

The first Buddhist books to reach China emanated from 
the Lesser Vehicle. But the Greater Vehicle or Bodhisattva- 
Buddhism soon prevailed, and by the sixth century A.D. over 
two thousand works, most of them belonging to the Greater 
Vehicle, had been translated into Chinese. 

BUDDHIST SECTS. 

There were already many sects in China, the chief of which 
were : 

(1) The Amidists. 

This was" the form of Buddhism which appealed to the 
)ined:iicated. • It taught that a Buddha named Amida pre- 
sides over the Western Paradise, where he will receive the 
souls of those that worship him. The conception of this 
Paradise closely resembles the Christian idea of Heaven and 
may have been derived from it. 

(2) The Tendai Sect, founded at the end of the sixth 
century. Its teaching was based on a scripture of enormous 
length called the Saddharnia Pundartka Sutra, which is 
translated by Kern in the Sacred Books of the East. It was 
perhaps the broadest and most representative sect. It laid 
great stress on the ethical side of Buddhism. 

We now come to Zen. 

In the year 520 a.d. there arrived at Canton a missionary 
from Southern India. His name was Bodhidharma and he 
appears to have been the younger son of an Indian Prince. 

The reigning Emperor of China was a munificent patron of 
Buddhism. He had built monasteries, given alms, distributed 
scriptures, defended the faith. Hearing that a Buddhist prince 
had arrived from India he summoned him at once to his 

8 



Capital. The following conversation took place in the Palace 
at Nanking : 

Emperor : You will be interested to hear that I have built 
many monasteries, distributed scriptures, given 
alms, and upheld the Faith. Have I not indeed 
acquired merit? 

Bodhidharma : None at all. 

Emperor: In what then does true merit consist? 

Bodhidharma : In the obliteration of Matter through Abso- 
lute Knowledge, not by external acts. 

Emperor: Which is the Divine and Primal Aspect of 
Eeality? 

Bodhidharma : Eeality has no aspect that is divine. 

Emperor: What are you, who have come before my 
Throne? 

Bodhidharma : I do not know. 

The Emperor could make nothing of him. Monasticism, 
a huge vested interest, decried him, and after a short stay in 
Nanking he started northward, towards the Capital of the Wei 
Tartars, who then ruled over a large jDart of China. The Wei 
Emperor, like his Chinese confrere, was also a great patron of 
Buddhism, and he, too, desired an interview with the Indian 
priest. But Bodhidharma had done with Emperors, and 
settled in a small country temple, where he lived till his deatli 
nine years later. Some say that he tried to visit the Capital 
of the Weis, but was prevented by the intrigues of the monks 
there. 

He left behind him a few short tractates, the substance of 
which is as follows : 

There is no such person as Buddha. Buddha is simply a 
Sanskrit word meaning " initiate." The Absolute is imma- 
nent in every man's heart. This "treasure of the heart" 
is the only Buddha that exists. It is no use seeking Buddha 
outside your own nature. Prayer, scripture-reading, fasting, 
the observance of monastic rules — all. are useless. Those 
who seek Buddha do not find him You may know by heart 
all the Sutras of the twelve divisions, and yet be unable to 
escape from the W^heel of Life and Death. One thing alono 

9 



avails — to discover the unreality of the World by contemplat- 
ing the Absolute v^hich is at the root of one's bwn nature. 

Some one asked him : ' ' Why may we not worship the 
Buddhas and Bodhisattvas? " He answered : 

Ogres and hobgoblins can at will assume the outward 
form of Bodhisattvas ; such are heretical and not of the true 
Buddha. There is no Buddha but your own thoughts. 
Buddha is the Way. The Way is Zen. This word Zen 
cannot be understood even of the wise. Zen means ' for a 
man to behold his fundamental nature.' "^ 



The highest truths cannot be written down or taught by 
speech. A man who cannot write a word, can yet con- 
template his own heart and become wise. Knowledge of 
1,000 Sutras and 10,000 Shastras cannot help him to realise 
the Absolute within him. 
He was asked : ' ' Can a layman with wife and children, 
one given over to the lusts of the flesh, achieve Buddhahood? " 
He answered : 

' ' Provided he contemplate his own inner-nature, he will 

achieve Buddhahood. It does not matter about his lusts. 

Even a butcher can achieve Buddhahood, if he searches in 

his own heart." 

" What," cried his listeners, " a butcher, who lives by tak- 

in;^ life, and he achieve Buddhahood? " The master replied : 

"It is not a question of the man's trade. If he has 
learnt to know his own nature he will be saved. 

' ' I have come from India only to teach you that Buddha 
is Thought. I care nothing for monastic rules or ascetic 
practices. As for walking on water or through fire, climb- 
ing sword-wheels, fasting, sitting upright for hours without 
rest — all such practices are heretical ; they belong to the 
World of Being. 

"Thought, Thought, Thought! It is hard to seek. 
Expanding, it covers the whole world ; shrinking, it is too 
small to lodge a pin. 

' ' I seek the heart ; I do not seek Buddha. For I have 

(1) Zen (Sanskrit: dhyana) means literally "contemplation." 

10 



learnt to know that the outer world is empty and unten- 
anted." 

Such was the teaching of Bodhidharma. It was Vedantic^ 
rather than Buddhist. The terms "thought," "Buddha," 
etc., used by Bodhidharma correspond exactly to the brahman 
of the Upanishads. Mystic contemplation or yoga had been 
used by the Brahmins and was not unknown to the early 
Buddhists. But Bodhidharma was the first to insist upon it 
as the sole means of salvation. 

Yet though his whole teaching turned on this ' ' medita- 
tion " or " Zen," he left behind him no exact directions for the 
practice of it. Having shown the end, he left it to each indi- 
vidual to find his own means. Kules, dogmas and definitions 
were precisely what he set out to destroy. 

Less than a hundred years after his death another Indian, 
Buddhapriya, came to China and there defined with exactitude 
and blunt materiality the various forms of meditation. 

The transition from the spirituality of Bodhidharma to the 
grossness of his follower is, however, typical of religious 
history. The poetry of Christ turns into the theology of 
Paul ; the hovel of Saint Francis into the mansion of Brother 
Elias. 

BUDDHAPEIYA. 

He first describes the different attitudes in w^hich Zen may 
be practised, with an exact account of the correct position for 
hands, feet, head, etc. The normal attitude of meditation, 
cross-legged, with upright back and hands locked over the 
knees is familiar to every one. 

Zen could also be practised while walking and, in cases of 
sickness, w^hile lying down. Buddhapriya's instructions are 
in the form of question and answer. 

Question. — How does the Zen practised by heretics and 
by the other schools of Buddhism differ from our 
Zen? 

Answer. — The Zen of the heretics is not impersonal. The 
Zen of the Lesser Vehicle is material. The Zen 

(2) Dr. McGovern tells me that Zen would seem to be more immediately 
derived from the Nihilistic School of Nagarjuna (ist century a.d.). 

11 



of the Greater Vehicle only abstracts man and 
phenomena. 

Questio7i.—Ho-w ought one to set about practising Zen? 

Answer.—First put far away fit)m you all anger and malice, 
and fill your heart with kindness and compassion! 

Question. —Gun the beginner at once proceed to the con- 
templation of non-Being? 

Answer.~By no means ! He must by stratagems gradually 
enter in. I have never yet seen one who straight- 
way achieved the vision of non-Keality. If for 
example he were meditating in this room he must 
first banish from his mind every part of the world 
except the city of Ch'ang-an. Next every building 
in the city except this monastery. Next, every 
room in the monastery except this cell, every object 
but himself, every part of himself except the end 
of his nose. Finally the end of his nose hangs in 
space like a drop of dew and on this nose-end he 
concentrates his mind. 

This is only a preliminary exercise. There are 
others of the same kind. For example — persuade 
yourself that your navel is a minute rivulet running 
through the sands. When this conception is firmly 
achieved, you will see a bright light and ultimately, 
the body growing transparent, you will behold the 
working of your bowels. 

Or again, regard your head as the top of a 
hollow pipe which runs straight down through your 
body into the earth. Meditate upon the top of 
your head, that is to say, upon the mouth of the 
drain-pipe, and then gradually ascend in your 
thoughts to a height of four inches above the head, 
and concentrate firmly on this conception. You 
will thus easily pass into the contemplation of non- 
Being, having performed the transition from ele- 
mentary to complete Zen as comfortably as a work- 
man climbs the rungs of a ladder. 

Question. — Are there any signs whereby I may know that 
I have attained to Samadhi?^ 

(*) Concentration. 
12 



Answer. — To be sure there are. Sometimes you will feel 
a sensation as of bugs or ants creeping over your 
skin ; or again, it will appear to you that a cloud 
or mass of white cotton-wool is rising immedi- 
ately behind your back. In neither case must you 
be discomposed or put out your hand. Sometimes 
it will seem as though oil were dripping down from 
your head and face ; sometimes a light will shine 
from out of the ground you are sitting upon. 
These are all preliminary signs. 
Sometimes when you have been sitting for a 
long while and your back is aching, you will sud- 
denly hear a sound of rapping with the fingers or a 
noise as of some one bumping against the door. 
Do not be disquieted. These are the Good Spirits 
of Heaven, come to warn you against sleep. 

Again, it may happen that you have an agree- 
able sense of lightness and floating ; this is a good 
sign. Beware, however, of a painful sense of 
lightness ; for this may merely indicate flatulence. 

Patches of heat on the body are a sign of Fiery 
Samadhi. A light filling the whole room is a pre- 
monitory sign of Zen ; to smell strange fragrances 
not known on earth is a sign of whole and utter 
Abstraction. 

Such and many more are the signs of Zen. 
The practicant must not heed them ; for if by them 
he be encouraged or dismayed, all his work will be 
undone. 

Question. — Can Zen be practised in a Buddha Shrine? 

Answer. — No, indeed ! Zen should be practised in a quiet 
room or under a tree or among tombs or sitting on 
the dewy earth. 

Question. — Can Zen be practised by many sitting together? 

Answer. — To be sure it may ; but each must face his neigh- 
bour's back. They must not sit face to face. When 
there are many sitting together at night, a lamp or 
candle may be lit ; but when there are few together, 
it ought not to be used. 

13 



Question. — Need I wear monastic vestments at my 
meditations? 

Answer. — Vestments? Why, you need wear no clothes at 
all, if so be you are alone. 

LATEK DEVELOPMENT OF ZEN. 

Zen was at first a purely personal discipline, non-monastic, 
non-ethical, not demanding the acceptance of any Scripture 
or any tradition. In modern Japan it has to some extent 
regained this character. In China the habit of quoting written 
authority was too strong to be easily discarded. The Zen 
masters soon began to answer difficult questions by quoting 
from the Buddhist Scriptures. Convenience dictated that 
practicants of Zen should live in communities and monasticism 
was soon established in their sect, as in every other sect of 
Buddhism. Questions of conduct arose, and Zen was squared 
with the contemporary ethical outlook ; though in medievsl 
Japanese literature wicked and cynical persons are generally 
depicted as adepts of Zen, 

Bodhidharma denied the existence of Good and Evil ; but 
it was pointed out by later apologists that the Zen adept, 
having viewed the Absolute, is convinced of the unreality and 
futility of those pleasures and possessions which are the incen- 
tive to sin. The Zen practicant, though he makes no moral 
effort, nevertheless is certain not to sin, because he is certain 
not to be tempted. 

Finally, Zen forged itself a tradition. Probably during 
the eleventh century a Scripture^ was fabricated which recounts 
how bnce when Buddha was preaching, he plucked a flower 
and smiled. Only the disciple Kashyapa understood the 
significance of this act. Between him and the Buddha there 
passed a wordless communication of Absolute Truths. This 
communication was silently passed on by Kashyapa to his 
disciple, and so ultimately to Bodhidharma, who brought it 
to China. 

The method of teaching by symbolic acts (such as the 
plucking of a flower) was extensively used by the Zen masters. 
For example, when a disciple asked Enkwan a question about 

(1) Dai Bonten Monbutsu Ketsugi Ky'O. 
14 



the nature of Buddha, he answered, " Bring me a clean bowl." 
When the priest brought the bowl, the master said, "Now 
put it back where you found it." He signified that the priest's 
questionings must return to their proper place, the questioner's 
heart, from which alone spiritual knowledge can be obtained. 
The object of the Zen teachers, as of some eccentric school- 
masters whom I have known, seems at first sight to have been 
merely to puzzle and surprise their pupils to the highest 
possible degree. A peculiar ' ' brusquerie ' ' was developed in 
Zen monasteries. The literature of the sect consists chiefly 
in an endless series of anecdotes recording the minutest 
happenings in the lives of famous Zen monks and their 
(apparently) most trivial sayings. But behind these trifling 
acts and sayings a deep meaning lay hid. The interpretation 
of such teaching depends on a complete knowledge of the 
sy m bo li sm used. I am not inclined to agree with those 
stuaentsof Zen who assert that its written teaching are 
wholly devoid of intellectual content or so completely esoteric 
as not to admit of explanation in words. Like other Buddhist 
philosophers the Zen masters were chiefly concerned with the 
attempt to define the relation between the One and the Many, | 
between the subjective and objective aspects of life. 

The idealism of Zen does not mean that the phenomenal 
world has no importance. To those who have not reached 
complete self-realisation the urgencies of that world remain 
paramount and are the only stepping-stones upon which he 
can climb higher. 

On the day of his arrival at the monastery a novice pre- 
sented himself before the abbot, begging to be allowed to begin 
his spiritual exercises without further delay. " Have you had 
supper?" asked the abbot. "Yes." "Then go and wash 
your plate." 

THE ZEN MASTEKS. }^ n K^ 

Let us begin with Eno, a master of the seventh century. He 
lost his parents when he was young and earned his living by 
gathering firewood. One day when he was in the market- 
place he heard some one reading the Diamond Sutra.^ He 

(1) Translated by W. Gemmell, 1912. Its uss by Konin shows that Zen 
did not long avoid the use of scriptures. 

15 



asked where such books were to be had and was told ' ' From 
Master Konin on the Yellow Plum-blossom Hill." Accord- 
ingly he went to Konin 's Monastery in Anhui and presented 
himself before the Master. "Where do you come from?" 
"From the South." "Bah! In the South they have not 
Buddha in their souls." "North and South," replied Eno, 
" are human distinctions that Buddha knows nothing of." 

Konin accepted him as a lay-brother and put him to pound 
rice in the bakery. 

Konin was growing old and wished to choose his successor. 
He therefore instituted a poetical competition in which each 
monk was to epitomise in a quatrain the essence of Zen. The 
favourite candidate was the warden Shinshu, who sent in the 
following verses : 

The body is the trunk of the Bodhi-tree; 
The mind is the bright mirror' s stand ; 
Scrub your mirror continually, 
Lest the dust eclipse its brightness. 
Eno, as a lay-brother, was not qualified to compete. Some 
one told him of Shinshu's quatrain. " Mine would be very 
different," he exclaimed, and persuaded one of the boys em- 
ployed in the bakery to go stealthily by night and inscribe the 
following poem on the monastery-wall : 
Knowledge is not a tree; 
The Mirror has no stand; 
Since nothing exists. 
How could dust rise and cover it? 

The authorship of the poem was discovered and the abbot 
Konin visited Eno in the bakery. ' ' Is your rice white or 
no? " he asked. " White? " answered Eno ; " it has not yet 
been sifted." Thereupon the abbot struck three times on the 
rice-mortar with his staff and departed. Eno understood his 
meaning. That night at the third watch he came to Konin's 
cell and was invested with the abbot's mantle, thereby becom- 
ing the Sixth Patriarch of the Zen Church. He died in 712 a.d., 
without having learned how to read or write. 

FASHIONABLE ZEN. 

The warden Shinshu had lost the Patriarchate and with it 
the spiritual headship of Zen. But as a compensation Fate 

16 



had in store for him worldly triumphs of the most dazzling 
I'ind. Leaving the rural monastery of Konin, he entered the 
Temple of the Jade fountain in the great city of Kingchau. 
His fame soon spread over central China. He was a man of 
"huge stature, bushy eyebrows and shapely ears." The 
Empress Wu Hou, who had usurped the throne of China, 
notoriously cultivated the society of handsome priests. About 
684 A.D. she summoned him to the Capital. Instead of com- 
manding his presence at Court she came in a litter to his lodgings 
and actually knelt down before him. The friendship of this 
murderous and fiendishly cruel woman procured for him 
temporal dignities which in the eyes of the world completely 
outshone the rustic piety of the Sixth Patriarch. Shinshu at 
the Capital became as it were the Temporal Father of Zen, 
while Eno at his country monastery remained its spiritual 
pope. The successors of Eno became known as the Fathers 
of the Southern School ; while the courtly and social Zen of 
Shinshu is called Zen of the North. 

Was it in sincere goodwill or with the desire to discredit 
'.lis rival that Shinshu invited Eno to join him at the Capital? 
In any case Eno had the good sense to refuse. " I am a man 
of low stature and humble appearance," he replied; "I fear 
that the men of the North would despise me and my doctrines " 
— thus hinting (with just that touch of malice which so often 
spices the unworldly) that Shinshu's pre-eminence in the 
North was due to outward rather than to spiritual graces. 

Shinshu died in 706, outliving his august patroness by a 
year. To perpetuate his name a palace was turned into a 
memorial monastery ; the Emperor's brother wrote his 
epitaph ; his obsequies were celebrated with stupendous pomp. 

His successor, Fujaku, at first remained at the Kingchau 
monastery where he had been Shinshu's pupil. But in 724 the 
irresolute Emperor Ming-huang, who had proscribed Buddhism 
ten years before, summoned Fujaku to the Imperial City. 
Here princes and grandees vied with one another in doing him 
honour. "The secret of his success," says the historian,^ 
' * was that he seldom spoke and generally looked cross. Hence 
his rare words and occasional smiles acquired in the eyes of his 

(1) Old T'ang History, 191. 
17 



admirers an unmerited value." He died at the age of 89. On 

the day of his interment the great streets of Ch'ang-an were 
empty. The whole city had joined in the funeral procession. 
The Governor of Honan (one of the greatest functionaries in 
the State), together with his wife and children, all of them 
clad in monastic vestments, followed the bier, mingling with 
the promiscuous crowd of his admirers and disciples. 

Eeligion was at that time fashionable in the high society 
of Ch'ang-an, as it is to-day in the great Catholic capitals of 
Munich, Vienna or Seville. When I read of Fujaku's. burial 
another scene at once sprang into my mind, the funeral of a 
great Bavarian dignitary, where I saw the noblemen of Munich 
walk hooded and barefoot through the streets. 

I shall not refer again to the Northern School of Zen. 
One wonders whether the founders of religions are forced by 
fate to watch the posthumous development of their creeds. If 
so, theirs must be the very blackest pit of Hell. 

Let us return to the Southern School, always regarded as 
the true repository of Zen tradition. 

OBAKU. 

Obaku lived at the beginning of the ninth century, and was 
thus a contemporary of the poet Po Chii-i. He enjoyed the 
patronage of a distinguished statesman the Chancellor Hai 
Kyti, of whom the Emperor said, ' ' This is indeed a true Con- 
fucian." It is to the Chancellor that we owe the record of 
Obaku's conversations, which he wrote down day by day. I 
will make a few extracts from this diary : 

Hai Kyu. — Eno could not read or write. How came it that 

he succeeded to the Patriarchate of Konin? The 

warden Shinshu was in control of 500 monks, gave 

lectures, and could discourse upon thirty-two 

different Sutras and Shastras. It was certainly 

very strange that he was not made Patriarch. 

Obaku (replying). — Shinshti's conception of Thought was 

too material. His proofs and practices were too 

positive. 

' ' The master told me that when he was studying with 

Enkwan, the Emperor Tai Chung came dressed as a monk. 

18 



The master happened to be in the chapel prostrating himself 
before an image of Buddha. The Emperor, who thought he 
had learnt the lesson of Zen idealism, said to him : ' There 
is nothing to be got from Buddha, nothing from the Church, 
nothing from Man ; for nothing exists. What do you mean 
by praying at your age? ' 

' ' Obaku answered him : ' I seek nothing of Buddha, the 
Church, or of Man. I am in the habit of praying.' The 
Emperor said : ' What do you do it for? ' Obaku lost 
patience and struck him with his fist. ' You rude fellow,' 
cried the Emperor. ' Since nothing exists, what difference 
does it make to you whether I am rude or polite? ' and 
Obaku struck him again. The Emperor retreated hastily." 

In his old age Obaku visited his native village and stayed 
a year in his mother's house, without revealing his identity. 
After he had set out again for his monastery, his mother sud- 
denly realised that he was her son and went in pursuit of him. 
■She reached the shore ;of a certain river, only to see him disem- 
barking on the other side. Thereupon she lost her reason and 
flung herself into the water. 

Obaku threw a lighted torch after her and recited the follow- 
ing verses : 

May the wide river dry at its source, to its very bed 

If here the crime of matricide has been done; 

When one son becomes a priest, the whole family is born again 

in Heaven; 
If that is a lie, all that Buddha promised is a lie. 

Henceforward the throwing of a lighted torch into the bier 
became part of the Zen funeral ceremony ; it was accompanied 
by the reciting of the above verses. Probably formula, ritual, < 
and story alike belong to a period much more ancient than 
Buddhism. 

In the seventeenth century a Chinese priest named Ingen-^ 
carried the teaching of Obaku to Japan, where it now possesses 
nearly 700 temples. 

(1) 1592-1673 A.D. 

19 



BASO. 

Baso was a master of the ninth century. One day he was 
sitting with his feet across the garden-path. A monk came 
along with a wheel-barrow. "Tuck in your feet," said the 
monk. "What has been extended cannot be retracted," 
answered Baso. " What has been started cannot be stopped," 
cried the monk and pushed the barrow over Base's feet. The 
master hobbled to the monastery and seizing an axe called out 
" Have any of you seen the rascal who hurt my feet? " The 
monk who had pushed the barrow then came out and stood 
"with craned head." The master laid down his axe. 

To understand this story we must realise that the wheel- 
])arrow is here a symbol of the Wheel of Life and Death, which, 
though every spoke of it is illusion, cannot be disregarded till 
we have destroyed the last seed of phenomenal perception in us. 

RINZAI. 

• Obaku, as we have seen, taught wisdom with his fists. 
When the novice Rinzai came to him and asked him what 
was the fundamental idea of Buddhism, Obaku hit him three 
times with his stick. Rinzai fled and presently met the monk 
Daigu. 

Daigu: Where do you come from? 

Rinzai: From Obaku. 

Daigu: And what stanza did he lecture upon? 

Rinzai: I asked him thrice what was the fundamental 
doctrine of Buddhism and each time he hit me with 
his stick. Please tell me if I did something I 
ought not to have done? 

Daigu : You go tt> Obaku and torture him by your questions, 
and then ask if you have done wrong ! 

At that moment Rinzai had a Great Enlightenment. 

Rinzai substituted howling for Obaku 's manual violence. 
He shouted meaningless syllables at his disciples ; roared like 
a lion or bellowed like a bull. This "howling" became a 
regular part of Zen practice, and may be compared to the yell- 
ing of the American Shakers. Upon his deathbed Rinzai sum- 
moned his disciples round him and asked which of them felt 

20 



capable of carrying on his work. Sansho volunteered to do so. 
"How will you tell people what was Einzai's teaching? " asked 
Kinzai. Sansho threw out his chest and roared in a manner 
which he thought would gratify the master. But Kinzai 
groaned and cried out, ' ' To think that such a blind donkey 
should undertake to hand on my teaching ! ' ' 

It was in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that Zen 
most completely permeated Chinese thought. Upon the in« 
vasion of the Mon^ols^ many Zen monks from Eastern China 
too^ refuge in Japan ; the same thing happened during the 
Manchu invasion in the seventeenth century. But by that time 
Zen had a serious philosophic rival. 

In the fifteenth century the philosopher Wang Yang-ming 
began to propagate a doctrine which, in all but names, strongly 
resembled the philosophic side of Zen. He taught that in each 
one of us is a " higher nature," something which, borrowing a 
phrase from Mencius, he called " Good Knowledge." Of this 
inner nature he speaks in exactly the same terms as the Zen 
teachers spoke of their "Buddha immanent in man's heart." 
He even uses the same kind of doggerel-verse as a medium of 
teaching. 

Eigid Confucianists, who would not have listened to any 
doctrine of professedly Buddhist origin, were able through 
Wang Yang-ming 's tact to accept the philosophy of Zen with- 
out feeling that they were betraying the Confucian tradition. 
The followers of Yang-ming are to-day very numerous both, in 
China and Japan. They cultivate introspection, but not the 
complete self-hypnosis of Zen. 

In China, where Zen is almost forgotten, the followers of 
this later doctrine are not even aware of its derivation. 

ZEN AND AET. 

I said at the beginning of this paper that Zen is often 
mentioned by writers on Far Eastern Art. The connection 
between 2en and art is important, not only because of the 
inspiration which Zen gave to the artist, but also because 
through Zen was obtained a better understanding of the psycho- 

(1) On the_attitude j>f the Mongol rulers to Zen, see an article by Prof. 
Kunishita, Toyogakuho, xi., 4, 87. 

21 



logical conditions under which art is produced than has pre- 
vailed in any other civilisation. 

y^ Art was regarded as a kind of Zen, as a delving down into 
the Buddha that each of us unknowingly carries within him, 
as Benjamin carried Joseph's cup in his sack. Through Zen 
we annihilate Time and see the Universe not split up into 
myriad fragments, but in its primal unity. Unless, says the 
Zen sBsthetician, the artist's work is imbued with this vision 
of the subjective, non-phenomenal aspect of life, his produc- 
tions will be mere toys. 

I do not mean to suggest that Chinese artists found in Zen 

"V a short cut to the production of beauty. Zen aims at the 

"^ annihilation of consciousness, whereas art is produced by an 

i interaction of conscious and unconscious faculties. How far 

such an interaction can be promoted by the psychic discipline 

of Zen no layman can judge ; moreover the whole question of 

\ the artist's psychology is controversial and obscure. 

Perhaps it is not even very important that the artist himself 
should have a sound aesthetic ; but it is of the utmost import- 
ance to the artist that the public should have some notion of 
the conditions under which art can be produced — should have 
some key to the vagaries of a section of humanity which will 
in any case always be found troublesome and irritating. 

Such a key Zen supplied, and it is in the language of Zen 
that, after the twelfth century, art is usually discu'ssed in 
c^.China and Japan. 

THE KOKUTSUJI SCHOOL. 

One institution, about which till recently very little was 
known, seems to have been an important factor in the propa- 
gation of Zen art and ideas. About 1215 a.d. a Zen priest 
came from the far south-west of China to Hangchow, the 
Capital, and there refounded a ruined monastery, the Eokutsuji, 
which stood on the shores of the famous Western Lake. His 
name was Mokkei. He seems to have been the first to practise c 
the swift, ecstatic type of monochrome which is associated 
with Zen. In hurried swirls of ink he sought to record before 
they faded visions and exaltations produced whether by the 
frenzy of wine, the stupor of tea, or the vacancy of absorption. _> 

22 



■6- .Sometimes his design is tangled and chaotic ; sometimes as 
in his famous "Persimmons,"^ passion has congealed into a 
stupendous calm. X, 

Of his fellow-workers the best known is Easo, a painter of 
birds and flowers. Ryokai, once a fashionable painter, left the 
Court and with his pupil Rikaku worked in the manner of 
Mokkei. 

Examples of Ryokai' s work before and after his conversion 
are still preserved in Japan. 

Finally, about the middle of the fourteenth century, a 
Japanese priest came to China and, under cireumetances which 
I shall describe in an appendix, confusingly became Mokkei II. 
It may be that it was he who sent back to his own country 
some of the numerous pictures signed Mokkei which are now 
in Japan. Which of them are by Mokkei and which by 
Mokuan is a problem which remains to be solved. 

This Zen art did not flourish long in China, nor in all proba- ' 
bility do many specimens of it survive there. But in Japan 
it was a principal source of inspiration to the great painters 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Sesshu himself is 
the direct descendant of Mokkei;- as in a decadent- w^fy- are . j 
Kano masters such as Tsunenobu. (->S^ 

Zen paintings are of two kinds. (1) Representations of 
animals, birds and flowers, in which the artist attempted to 
identify himself with the object depicted, to externise its inner 
Buddha. These were achieved not by study from the life, as 
the early Sung nature-pieces have been, but by intense and 
concentrated visualisation of the subject to be painted. This 
mental picture was rapidly transferred to paper before the spell 
of concentration (samadhi) was broken. (2} Illustrations of 
episodes in the lives of the great Zen teachers. This branch 
of Zen art was essentially dramatic. It sought to express the 
characters of the persons involved, subtly to reveal the 
grandeur of soul that lay hidden behind apparent uncouthness 
or stupidity. Typical of this kind of painting are the pictures 
of " Tanka burning the Image." 

One night Tanka, a Zen priest, stayed as a guest at an ordi- 
nary Buddhist monastery. There was no firewood in his cell. 

(1) See Kiimmel, Die Kunst Ostasiens PL ii8. 



If 



As the night was cold he went into the chapel, seized a wooden 
statue of Shakyamuni and, chopping it up, made himself a 
comfortable fire. To him the idol of Buddha was a mere block 
of wood; his indignant hosts took a different view. The 
controversy is the same as that which occupies the central 
place in the No play Sotoha Komachi. 

There is ahoT£er aspect of Zen which had an equally 
hnportant effect on art. The Buddha-nature is immanent not 
in Man only, but in everything that exists, animate of inani-' 
mat^. Stone, river and tree are alike parts of the great hidden 
UnJ^. Thus Man, througT^bis Buddha-nature or universalised 
consciousness, possesses an intimate means of contact with 
Nature. The songs of birds, the noise of waterfalls, the rolling 
of thunder, the whispering of wind in the, .pi%e-tjcees— all these 
are utterances of the Absolute. 

Hence the connection of Zen with the passionate love p|. 
Nature which is so evident in Far Easterh poetry and aft. 

Personally I believe that this passion for Nature worked 
more favourably on literature than on painting. The typical 
Zen picture, dashed off in a moment of exaltation — perhaps a 
moonlit river expressed in three blurs and a flourish — belongs 
rather to the art of calligraphy than to that of painting, -j. 

In his more elaborate depictions of nature the Zen artist 
is led by his love of nature into that common pitfall of lovers — 
sentimentality. The forms of Nature tend with him to 
. function not as forms but as symbols. 

Something iresembling the mystic belief which Zen 
embraces is found in many countries and under many names. 
But Zen differs from other religions of the same kind in that 
it admits only one means by which the perception of Truth 
can be attained. Prayer, fasting, asceticism — all are dismissed 
as useless, giving place to one single resource, the method of 
self-hypnosis which I have here described. 

I have, indeed, omitted any mention of an important 
adjunct of Zen, namely tea-drinking, which was as constant a 
feature in the life of Zen monasteries as it is here in the regime 
of charwomen and girl-clerks. I have not space to describe 
■the various tea-ceremonies. The tendency of monasteries was 
i;o create in them as in every part of daily life a more and more 

24 



elaborate ritual, calculated to give some pattern to days other- 
wise devoid of any incident. We possess minute descriptions 
of every ceremony — the initiation of novices, the celebration of 
birth and death anniversaries of the Patriarchs, the procedure 
in cases of sickness, madness, disobedience, disappearance or 
death of monks ; the selection and investiture of abbots ; the 
lectures, liturgies and sessions which constituted the curricu- 
lum of Zen instruction. 

In China decay set in after the fifteenth century. The Zen 
monasteries became almost indistinguishable from those of 
popular, idolatrous Buddhism. In jTapan, on the other hand, 
Zen has remained, absolutely distinct and.is now the favourite^ 
creed of the educated classes. It has not hitherto conducted^ 
a'ny propaganda in Europe, whereas the Amida Sect has sent 
out both missionaries and pamphlets. But I believe that 
Zen would find many converts in England. Something rather 
near it we already possess. Quakerism, like Zen, is a non- 
dogmatic religion, laying stress on the doctrine of Immanence. 
But whereas the Quakers seek communion with the Divine 
Spark in corporate meditation and deliberately exploit the 
mysterious potencies of crowd-psychology^the Zen adept 
probes in solitude (or at least without reference to his neigh- 
hour) for the Buddha within him. 

In cases where a Quaker meeting passes in silence, the 
members having meditated quietly for a whole hour, a very 
near approach to a Zen gathering has been made. But more 
often than not the Holy Spirit, choosing his mouthpiece with 
an apparent lack of discrimination, quickly descends upon some 
member of the meeting. The ineffable, which Zen wisely 
refused to express, is then drowned in a torrent of pedestrian 
oration. 

Some, then, may turn to Zen as a purer Quakerism. Others 
will be attracted to it by the resemblance of its doctrines to the 
hypotheses of recent psychology. The Buddha consciousness 
of Zen exactly corresponds to the Universal Consciousness 
^ which, according to certain modern investigators, lies hid 
beneath the personal Consciousness. Such converts will prob- 
ably use a kind of applied Zen, much as the Japanese have 
done ; that is to say, they will not seek to spend their days in 

25 



I 1 



complete Samadhi, but will dive occasionally, for rest or 
encouragement, into the deeper recesses of the soul. 

It is not likely that they will rest content with the tradi- 
tional Eastern methods of self-hypnosis, (if certain states of 
consciousness are indeed more valuable than those with which 
we are familiar in ordinary life — then we must seek them 
unflinchingly by whatever means we can devise. I can 
imagine a kind of dentist's chair fitted with revolving mirrors, 
flashing lights, sulphurous haloes expanding and contracting — 
in short a mechanism that by the pressure of a single knob 
should whirl a dustman into Nirvana. , 

Whether such states of mind are actually more valuable 
than our ordinary consciousness is dijQ&cult to determine. 
Certainly no one has much right to an opinion who has not 
experienced them. But something akin to Samadhi — a 
sudden feeling of contact with a unity more real than the 
apparent complexity of things — is probably not an uncommon 
experience. The athlete, the creative artist, the lover, the 
philosopher — all, I fancy, get a share of it, not when seeking 
to escape from the visible world ; but rather just when that 
world was seeming to them most sublimely real. 

To seek by contemplation of the navel or of the tip of the 
nose a repetition of spiritual experiences such as these seems 
to us inane ; and indeed the negative trance of Zen is very 
different from the positive ecstasies to which I have just 
referred. I say that it is different ; but how do I know" 
" Zen," said Bodhidharma, " cannot be described in words nor 
chronicled in books " ; and I have no other experience of Zen. 
If I knew, 1 might transmit to you my knowledge, but it would 
have to be by a direct spiritual communication, symbolised 
only by a smile, a gesture, or the plucking of a flower. ' 

r-^ need not therefore apologise for having given a purely 
external and historical account off Zen, a creed whose inner 
i mysteries are admittedly beyond the scope of words. ? 



26 



APPENDIX I. 



Eeproductions of Zen Paintings in Japanese art publica- 
tions. (The Kokka and the other publications here referred 
to may be seen at the Art Library, Victoria and Albert 
Museum ; and at the Print Koom of the British Museum.) 

MOKKBL— Kokka. 37, 112, 122, 177, 185, 238, 242, 265, 268, 
291, 293, 314. 

'RASO.—Shimbi Taikwan XX. 

MOKUAN.— (Mokkei 11).— Kokka 295, Shimhi Taikwan Vol. 
IX. (Nos. 21 and 22 in the collection of Chinese 
Paintings at the British Museum are probably by 
Mokuan.) 

BYOKAl.— Kokka 40, 114, 145, 152, 220, 227, 229. 

BIKAKU.— Kokka 269. 

MUJUN. — (An important thirteenth century Zen writer.) 
Kokka 243. 

INDEA. — (A Hangchow priest, presumably an Indian ; 
flourished c. 1280.) Kokka 35, ilO, 223, 310. 
Shimhi Taikwan IX. 



27 



APPENDIX II. 



MOKUAN. 

The Nikkoshu^, a diary by the priest Gido, has the following 
entry under the year 1378 (month and day uncertain) : 

To-day Donfu^ came, and we fell to talking of Mokuan. 
It seems that he was once known as Ze-itsu. But on becom- 
ing a pupil of the priest Kenzan'^, he changed his name to 
Mokuan. Afterwards he went to China and entered the 
Honkakuji^, where he became the disciple of Eyo-an^ and 
was made librarian. Here he published at his own expense 
(lit. "selling his shoes") the Second Collection of Sayings 
hy Korin. 

Subsequently he lived at the Shotenji at Soochow, and 
was warden there under Nanso^, dying soon afterwards. 

When he first came to China he spent some time at the 
Joji Monastery at Hangchow and from there visited the 
Rokutsuji on the shores of the Western Lake. This 
monastery was inhabited by the followers of Mokkei. The 
abbot greeted Mokuan with a smile, saying to him : ' ' Last 
night I dreamt that our founder Mokkei came back again. 
You must be his reincarnation ' ' ; and he gave to Mokuan 
Mokkei 's two seals, white and red. Henceforward he was 
known as Mokkei the Second. 



(1) See my No Plays of Jafan (Allen & Unwin, 1921), p. 19. The passage 
here translated is taken not from the current, two-chapter abridgement of 
Gido's Diary, but from the Kokuchoshu, a miscellany by the 15th century 
priest Zuikei, wh^ quoted many passages from the lost portion of the Diary. 
See Mr. Saga Toshu, Shina Gaku, I., i. 

(2) 1314-1384. 

(3) Died 1323. Both he and Donfu were Japanese priests who visited 
China. 

(4) At Chia-hsing in Chehkiang, 

(5) Entered this temple in 1334. 

(6) Visited Japan; was at the Shotenji from 1342-1345. 



28 



APPENDIX III. 



Eeproductions of paintings illustrating Zen legend. 

BODHIDHARMA. 

(1) With tightly closed lips, as he appeared before the 
Emperor of China in 520. Masterpieces of Sesshu, 
PI. 47. 

(2) Crossing the Yangtze on a reed. 

Perhaps the best example may be seen not in a repro- 
duction, but in No. 22 of the original Chinese Paintings 
at the British Museum. 

(3) Sitting with his face to the wall. He sat thus in 
silence for nine years in the Shorin Monastery on 
Mount Sung. Kokka 333. 



EKA. 



Second Patriarch of the sect. Severed his own arm and 
presented it to Bodhidharma. In spite of his fanati- 
cism (or because of it) the Founder did not at first regard 
him with complete confidence and recommended to 
him the study of the Langkavatara Sutra, not con- 
sidering him ripe for complete, non-dogmatic Zen. 
Eka waiting waist-deep in the snow for the Founder 
to instruct him. Masterpieces of Sesshu, PI. 45. 



ENO. 



Sixth Patriarch. See above, p 15. 
Kokka, 289, 297. 

TOKUSAN, died 865 a.d. 

Shimhi Taikwan, I, 13, shows him with his famous 
Zen stick. He is also sometimes depicted failing to 
answer an old market-woman's riddle ; and tearing up 
his commentary on the Diamond Siitra. 

TANKA. 

A painting by Indra (Kokka 173) shows him burning 
the wooden statue of Buddha at the Erin Temple. 

29 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



(1) EUROPEAN. 

The only writer who has made extracts from the works 
of Bodhidharma is Pere Wieger, whose remarks (in his 
Histoire des Croyances religieuses en Chine, pp. 517-528) show 
a robust and likeable bigotry. 

Of Zen literature he says: " Nombre d'in-folio remplis de 
reponses incoherentes, insensees. . . . Ce ne sont pas, comme 
on I'a suppose, des allusions a des affaires interieures, qu'il 
faudrait connaitre pour pouvoir comprendre. Ce sont des 
exclamations echappees a des abrutis, momentanement 
tires de leur coma." 

For the tea-ceremony in Japan see Okakura's Book of Tea 
(Foulis, 1919). The "military" Zen of Japan is well 
described by Nukariya Kaiten in his The Religion of the 
Samurai, 1913. 

(2) NATIVE. 

Most of this paper is derived from the section on Zen- 
(Series II, Vol. 15, seq.) in the " Supplement to the Collec- 
tion of Buddhist Scriptures," Dat Nihon Zoku Zo Kyo. 

Much of the information with regard to the Eokutsuji 
School is taken from the article by Mr. Saga to which I have 
already referred. For the Eokutsuji ( ' ' Temple of the Six 
Penetrations") see Hsien Shun Lin-an Chih ("Topography 
of Hangchow, 1265-1275 a.d."), ch. 78, f. 9 recto. 

I have also used Yamada's Zenshu Jiten (Dictionary of 
Zen) and the Hekiganroku, edited by Soyen, 1920. 



30 



SHORT INDEX. 



(Chinese pronunciations given in brackets.) 
Amida. 8. 
Baso (Ma Tsu). 20. 
Bodhidharma (Ta-mo). S seq., 29. 
Bodhisattvas. 8. 
Buddhapriya (Chio-ai). 11. 
Dai Bonten Monhutsu-ketsugi Kyo. 14. 
Daigu (Ta-yii). 20. 
Diamond Sutra. 15. 
Dhyana, see Zen. Also 10. 
Eka (Hui-k'o). 29. 
Enkwan (Yen-kuan). 14. 
Eno (Hui-neng). 15, 29. 
Fujaku (P'u-chi). 17. 
Haikyti (P'ei Hsiu). 18. 
Hokkekyo, see Saddharma, etc. 
Honkakuji (Pen-chio-ssii). 28. 
Joji (Ching-tz'u). 28. 
Kern. 8. 

Konin (Hung-jen). 15. 
Korin (Ku-lin). 28. 
Mahay ana. 7. 
Mokkei (Mu-ch'i). 22, 27. 
Mujun (Wu-chun). 27. 
Nanso (Nan-ch'u). 28. 
Obaku (Huang Po) . 18. 
Okakura. 30. 

Easo (Lo-ch'uang). 23, 27. 
Eikaku (Li Ch'iieh). 27. 
Einzai (Lin-chi). 20. 
Eokutsuji (Liu-t'ung-ssu). 22. 
Eyo-an (Liao-an). 28. 
Eyokai (Liang K'ai). 23,27. 
Saddharma Pnndar'ka Sutra. 8. 
Saga T. 28, 30. 
Samadhi (San-mei). 12. 
Sansho (San-sheng). 21. 

31 



Shakyamuni. 7. 
Shina Gaku._ 28, 30. 
Shinshu (Shen-hsiu). 16. 
Shotenji (Ch'eng-t'ien-ssii). 28. 
Tanka (Tan-hsia). 23, 29. 
Tendai (T'ien-t'ai). 8. 
Tokusan (Te-shan). 29. 
Wieger. 30. 
Wu Hou. 17. 
Zen (Ch'an). 7, etc. 



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